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Located on the peripheries of Turkey, Iran, and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries.

Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world.

With the Muslim conquest of Persia, large parts of the region came under the rule of the Arabs, and Islam penetrated into the region.

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In the 12th century, the Georgian king David the Builder drove the Muslims out from Caucasus and made the Kingdom of Georgia a strong regional power.

In 1194–1204 Georgian Queen Tamar's armies crushed new Seljuk Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Seljuk Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia.

Owing to the strong rivalry between Persia and Rome, and later Byzantium, the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region.

As the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia (an eponymous branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia) was the first nation to adopt Christianity as state religion (in 301 AD), and Caucasian Albania and Georgia had become Christian entities, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism and pagan beliefs.

Later ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis and Iberia, among others.

These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including Media, the Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, and the Sassanid Empire, who would altogether rule the Caucasus for many hundreds of years.The Caucasus region is separated between northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus (Ciscaucasus) and Transcaucasus (South Caucasus), respectively.The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and partially recognized Republic of Artsakh. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" (καύ-: καύαξ, καύηξ, ηκος ο, κήξ, κηϋξ "a kind of seagull" the reconstructed *κάσος η "mountain" or "rock" richly attested both in place and personal names.) According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A.Kura–Araxes culture from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km, and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus (except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.Under Ashurbanipal (669–627 BC) the boundaries of the Assyrian Empire reached as far as the Caucasus Mountains.It is home to the Caucasus Mountains including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which acts as a natural barrier separating Eastern Europe from Western Asia, the latter including the Transcaucasia, Armenian Highland and Anatolia regions.

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